Of all the things that are “taken for granted” in the world of education, Bloom’s Taxonomy has to be at the top of the pyramid — pun intended.
In 2017 Doug Lemov of Uncommon Schools published a very intelligent take-down of this educational holy cow. He makes the observation that knowledge/remembering being at the bottom of the pyramid is misleading for a lot of teachers — they assume that this position means that it is a “lower” cognitive skill.
Ron Berger’s critique at EdWeek instead points out that modeling and creating are the ways we typically learn outside of the traditional K12 setting. By putting them at the top of the pyramid, teachers may wait too long before engaging students in these kinds of activities.
The pyramid, first published in 1956, is basically a progressive model for understanding the learning process. In my experience, even schools that do not consider themselves progressive still employ the framework without too much hand-wringing.
Cognitive neuroscience is showing us that these processes really can’t be split into neat levels. Knowledge needs to be used in order to make it stick, and this in turn leads to greater understanding. By chunking processes that have become automatic through practice, our brains are then able to take on more and more complex tasks.
Bloom’s Taxonomy makes an appearance in a recent ed policy paper published by the Pioneer Institute and authored by Theodor Rebarber and Neal McCluskey. It contrasts the results of two educational reform initiatives that have gained traction since the early ’90’s. The first is the standards-driven approach, which culminated in the Common Core State Standards. The second is the school choice movement, exemplified by “voucher” programs, Education Savings Accounts, and charter schools.
In first part of the paper that the authors document what I think is sometimes an underappreciated dimension of CCSS. Namely, that they instantiate Bloom’s Taxonomy in law. The authors then take a close look at how CCSS math standards have actually lowered the bar for math proficiency vs. international benchmarks. This happens because students are expected to take the abstract step of talking about how they solve problems vs. demonstrating the ability to solve problem.
The authors did not apply a similar scrutiny to the ways in which ELA Common Core Standards have incorporated Bloom’s Taxonomy as they were out of the scope of the analysis.
Based on what I’ve seen of the ELA standards, I think the same issue is at work. The goals of the Common Core program were lofty and the designers meant well. In some places, the standards may have improved instruction. But the damage to education is that a particular pedagogical approach, en vogue in the 1950’s, has been instantiated into law.
As much as I’ve promoted better understanding of the science of learning among leaders and teachers, I wanted to just take a second to note that no matter how “settled” the science of phonics, knowledge-building, field trips, or anything else I like is, I don’t think any of it should be mandated. I think that in a free society we should speak up about what we think, share it with people that we care about, and use persuasion, not compulsion.
I hope that my fellow-travelers who are (quite rightly) excited that (for now) phonics seems to be winning the reading war will remember what it was like to be on the losing side, and refrain from lobbying for phonics instruction mandates. Doing so will lead to a backlash, and likely relegate phonics to the kooky fringes once again.